Bare Infinitives (Infinitive without ‘to’)
Rule 10 : Bare infinitive is used after let, bid, hear, watch, behold, see, feel, make etc.
E.g. I heard him to speak on several subjects. (Incorrect)
I heard him speak on several subjects. (correct)
We watched him to go and return. (Incorrect)
We watched him to go and return. (correct)
I made her to laugh. (Incorrect)
I made her laugh. (correct)
Note : But in passive voice ‘infinitive with to’ is used with them.
E.g. She was made to laugh by me . (Correct)
She was made laugh by me. (Incorrect)
Rule 11 : After modal auxiliaries ‘bare infinitives’ are used.
E.g., I shall go to the station.
You need not work hard.
Rule 12 : ‘Bare infinitives’ are used after ‘had better, had rather, had sooner, had as soon ……….as.
E.g., He has belter to go now. (Incorrect)
He has better go now. (Correct)
Problem : I had belter / gone than / stay here. /no error.
Explanations : Replace ‘gone’ by ‘go’.
Rule 13 : ‘Bare infinitives’ are used after conjunction ‘than’.
E.g., He has better reed than to write. (Incorrect)
He has better to read than to write. (Incorrect)
He has better read than write. (Correct)
Rule 14 : Participle is that form of verb which is used as a verb and as an adjective.
E.g. He is running in the field. (Verb)
The running boy is my younger brother. (adjective)
The work has tired me. (verb)
A tired man is sitting in the shade of a tree. (adjective)
Rule 15 : Participles are also used to join two or more than two works.
E.g. He took the gun.
He shot the tiger.
To join the above two sentence participle ‘having’ is used, and the sentence becomes
Having taken the gun, he shot the tiger.
Note : The action (verb) which took place earlier is placed with the participle.
When two actions take place one after the another, the structure of the sentence should be Having + V3 (In Active Voice)
Having + been + V3 or Being + V3 (In Passive Voice)
E.g. Having taken breakfast, he went out.
The leader having been killed, the followers ran away.
The leader being killed, the followers ran away.
Rule 16 : Every participle has a ‘Subject of Reference’ and ‘Subject of reference’ should be used properly.
While waking in the field, a snake bit him. (Correct)
Note : It is to be remembered that when two subjects are working simultaneously. (i.e., one subject is doing work and in the meanwhile the second subject did the work), then while is placed with the first subject (clause).
E.g. Coming towards her husband the glass slipped from her hand. (Incorrect)
While she was coming towards her husband, the glass slipped from her hand. (correct)
Being a fine day, I went out for a walk. (Incorrect)
It being a fine day, I went out for a walk. (Correct)